Midge Pupa Continued:

The papa looks almost like the larva with a thick thorax that contains the wings of the developing
midge. The hardened case, or puparium which is a capsule-like case, contains the wings and legs.
When they begin to emerge, the wings become much more prominent.
Some species that dwell in streams crawl out of their pupa cases while they are still on the bottom
and swim to the surface as adults. Trout can easily feed on them at this time. This is much less
common than surface emergence.
Especially in water that is calm where there is a heavy surface film, midges can have a very difficult
time penetrating the surface film and consequently, there may be a large number of midges that die
trying. Often the feeding trout don’t give them time to get through it. These pupae are easy takings for
the trout, and along with the cripples that just didn’t emerge right for one reason or other, can cause
them to concentrate only on this phase of the hatch.
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